In general, Camera lens including these, Fish-eyes lens, Wide angle lens, standard lens, and telephoto lens. Different lens are used in different situation. Here, I got some examples to show.
This photo is took by using a fish-eye lens. As you can see, this photo come out a circle shape, almost 180 angles. it captures a lot of details in one photo. Fish-eye lens’s aperture usually under f 3.5, and this lens is under 15 mm.
Wide angle lens
This is a photo took by using a wide angle lens. It also capture a lot of details, but not as mush as fish-eyes lens does. people use it also. Especially, when you take pictures in a small place, it is a best choice to use. It usually under 35 mm, and its aperture would be around f 2.8.
Standard lens is around 50 mm. photographer usually use it to take portrait. As you can see, the subjects are close to you, but the subjects aren’t bent. There are also lens at 28 mm and 35 mm, and their apertures are around f 1.8. Some of them are in f 1.2, f 2 or f 2.8, so Standard lens are good to use in a low light condition.
Telephoto lens usually means over 100 mm, and it can up to 1000 mm. Photographers use it to take photo of big competitions or object is far away. When it zoom in, the object or subject would become a little bit flat, and yo may feel the object it closer to you than you see by eyes.